Opening Shortly: August 2016
O2 Hospitals
(A unit of Nikitha Hospital, Seethammadhara, Visakhapatnam, since 2002)
Address: O2 Hospital, Plot No 16, Health City, Visakhapatnam-40

What is laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, and organ inside peritoneal cavity. The laparoscope is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system which brings light into the abdomen. It is about as big around as a fountain pen and twice as long. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is put into the abdomen through a special needle that is inserted just below the navel. This gas helps to separate the organs inside the abdominal cavity, making it easier for the physician to see the reproductive organs during laparoscopy. The gas is removed at the end of the procedure.

Micro Laparoscopy is new minimally invasive diagnostic surgical procedure uses telescopes and instruments that are much smaller than normal. If this procedure is appropriate for your condition, smaller incisions will be made and postoperative abdominal tenderness may be reduced.

Laparoscopy (lap-a-ros-copee) is an examination of the interior of the abdomen by means of an instrument called a laparoscope (lap-a- ros-cope). A laparoscope is a small telescope-like instrument with a light on one end which is passed through a small incision below the navel. This allows the physician to view and examine the organs in the abdominal cavity.

What is diagnostic laparoscopy?
A diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure in which the laparoscopic surgeon  uses a laparoscope, to look at the organs and tissues inside abdominal cavity.

What is laparoscopic surgery ?
The laparoscopic surgery  is a method by which surgery is done by making small incisions on the abdominal wall and inserting the instruments through specially designed ports. The procedure will be visualized with the help of a camera, which will also be introduced through one of these ports.

What are the advantages of this method ?
In conventional surgery a long incision is made to gain entry into the abdominal cavity and operate. This result in increased post- operative pain, longer stay in hospital, delayed recovery, long and ugly scars, respiratory problems, higher chance of wound infection, higher chance of incisional hernia, delayed feeding after surgery. The incidence of all these is dramatically reduced by laparoscopic surgery.
What procedure can be done by laparoscopic surgery... ?

Almost all surgeries being done in open surgery are nowadays being performed. The most common however are cholecystectomy (removal of the gall bladder), appendicectomy (removal of the appendix), tubal ligation (sterilisation), diagnostic laparoscopy, hernia repair.

Will I need anaesthesia ?
Diagnostic laparoscopy and hernia repairs can be done under local anaesthesia but the other procedures will require general anaesthesia.

How long do I have to stay in hospital ?
A healthy person without any other medical ailments and complications can be investigated on an out- patient basis. They can come in on the day of surgery or the previous day. Following a laparoscopic procedure for the gall bladder or appendix they can be discharged on the next day but for more advanced procedures three to four days in hospital would be the norm.

How soon can I start eating after surgery?
If the surgery is uneventful, feeding can be started on the same day once the patient has recovered completely from the effects of anaesthesia, provided no procedure has been performed on the bowel.

When can I get back to work?
Usually a weeks rest from the day of surgery should suffice. But it would be advisable for the surgeon to advice based on your progress.

Do I have to take absolute bed rest?
No. The advantage of this method as has been previously mentioned is that the incisions are very small, thereby reducing pain and danger of hernia. You can become ambulant as early as pain and anaesthetic factors permit.

Is it more expensive than open surgery?
The equipment, maintenance and procedure are more expensive but as the hospital stay and the intake of drugs is reduced it is actually the same if not less than open surgery.

Where can I get it done?
It has become very common and is being done in almost every reputed hospital with minimal complication rates.

What are the risks of laparoscopic surgery?
There are some risks when you have general anaesthesia.
There is chance of infection or bleeding.
The abdominal organs, glands, intestines, or blood vessels may be damaged if surgeon is not experienced
The lining of the abdominal wall may become inflamed known as peritonitis
A blood clot may enter the bloodstream, and clog an artery in the lung, pelvis, or legs.  Clot may break off and clog an artery in the heart or brain, causing a heart attack or stroke. But these risks are very rare.

Is laparoscopy useful in children?
Several procedures can be done by laparoscopy in children.
Laparoscopy is most commonly done to find and treat the cause of abdominal pain in children when other investigations have not been helpful.  Appendicitis can be diagnosed and appendicectomy done laparoscopically.  It may be equally easy and safe to do an open appendicectomy.
Other common indications are for treatment of benign ovarian cysts and when lower intestinal bleeding is suspected to be from a Meckel's diverticulum.
In advanced centres many major operations are done by minimal access techniques (as laparoscopy or key hole surgery is called). Of these, the most useful has been laparoscopic fundoplication  for gastro-oesophageal reflux

Is some operation like hydrocele, fistula etc is possible?
There is a common confusion about the procedures possible through laparoscopic method. We are getting letters from many patients asking about laparoscopic procedure for hydrocoele, Fistula ano, abscesses, and even for procedure like circumcision, mastectomy, cysts and abortion. It should be understand clearly that minimal access surgery is possible inside hollow closed cavities of the body, like abdomen and chest. Most of the procedure of the diseased organ inside the chest and abdomen can be performed by minimally invasive techniques but operations on solid organ outside the abdomen and chest does not require and also not possible through this technique.

What is laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is done to help your doctor determine what is wrong. Sometimes problems occur with a woman's reproductive organs that cannot be detected by a physical exam, x-rays or ultrasound. In these cases a diagnostic surgery called laparoscopy may be performed. This surgery is done with a slender telescope-like instrument called a laparoscope that is inserted through a small cut just below the navel. Anesthesia is required and the procedure involves some discomfort afterwards. ...
In laparoscopy, the surgeon makes one or more small incisions through which slender surgical instruments are passed. This technique eliminates the need for a large incision and creates less tissue damage. It is usually less painful and allows for a more rapid recovery.
Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure in which the surgeon makes a small incision in the patient's abdomen which allows the insertion of an instrument called a laparoscope. Using this instrument allows the surgeon to see the inside of the abdomen.
Laparoscopy is an innovative way of performing a surgical procedure. A thin telescope is inserted through your navel and a small digital camera that is attached to the end of the scope shows the anatomical structures in a big screen or TV monitor. Three more incision ( 5mm each) are performed in your abdomen. Then your surgeon performs the procedure using special instruments that are inserted through the small holes. ...
This is a technique to reach parts of the body without the use of large incisions. Instead, a narrow telescope and instruments are inserted through small incisions allowing surgery to be performed. The intention is to achieve the same results as would be obtained by conventional surgery.
What are the risks of laparoscopy?
While the risks are very rare, there is always some risk with any procedure. There are some risks when you have general anesthesia. There is chance of infection or bleeding. The abdominal organs, glands, intestines, or blood vessels may be damaged if surgeon is not experienced. The lining of the abdominal wall may become inflamed, which is known as peritonitis. A blood clot may enter the bloodstream and clog an artery in the lung, pelvis, or legs. ...
What exactly is Laparoscopy?
It's a surgical technique in which the abdominal cavity (belly) is inflated with carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) and distended. A small (3-11mm thick) telescope (resembling a long and thin tube) is then inserted through the belly button, inside the abdominal cavity. This telescope called laparoscope has a light source at its end and a camera that allows the surgical team to watch on TV monitors, what is inside the belly under magnification and in great detail. ...

What are the advantages of laparoscopy?
Excellent visualization (exposure) of organs, minimal trauma to organs, Small incisions with less chances of wound infection or/and breakdown. Significantly less adhesion formation (scar tissue inside the abdomen that may cause pain, infertility or bowel obstruction). In addition shorter hospital stay and significantly faster recovery. This means faster mobilization of the patient, that hopefully minimizes postoperative complications.
With laparoscopy, it is not necessary to cut through the muscle. Surgery is done through small incisions. The surgeon is able to see the operative field using a television monitor. Advantages include a reduction in potential wound complications, less occurrence of hernias and a faster return to full activity. For gastric bypass patients in New York, this approach is ideal for appropriate candidates. It is important to emphasize that even when surgery is done through small incisions; it is still a major operation.
Laparoscopic surgery results in faster recovery with less scarring and pain. Patients heal more quickly, experience less discomfort, and can return to daily activities sooner.

What is laparoscopy or laparoscopic surgery?
Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive approach to surgery of the abdomen. Instead of a large incision, laparoscopy usually requires 4 small incisions about the size of a dime, just large enough for a tiny video camera and precision surgical instruments to pass through.

What actually laparoscopy is?
Laparoscopy is an art of viewing the body cavities namely abdomen & thorax without actually opening it. One enters these cavitie
s through small puncture wounds called ports. The camera for inside viewing & the instruments for surgery are introduced through these ports which at the end of the operative procedure appear no more than minute scratches.

How is laparoscopy performed?
A small telescope is inserted into the bellybutton and small instruments are placed to safely remove the gallbladder.
To carry out this operation we use a peridural blockade + intravenous sedation and rarely, general anaesthesia is employed. It starts by a little incision in the navel, through which a special needle (Veress needle) fills the abdomen with a gas (carbon dioxide) until a certain pressure is attained. Through the same incision a trocar is inserted (little pipe with valves) that measures 10-12 mm of diameter in average, although sometimes a trocar of less breadth can be used (5 or 2 mm. ...

What does laparoscopy involve?
The laparoscope allows visual inspection of the pelvic organs through a very tiny incision. Abnormalities that lead to infertility can be treated surgically through additional small incisions to remove scar tissue, laser, coagulate, or excise endometriosis, and repair tubes blocked at the fimbrial end. Many types of female reproductive surgery can be performed laparoscopically in the outpatient setting.

What is the purpose of a laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy provides a careful and detailed assessment of a woman's pelvis. In our experience, it is very common during laparoscopy to find a problem related to infertility. Fortunately, many of these problems can be treated at the time of the laparoscopy. For many women, this can dramatically improve their chances of conceiving. ...

What is operative laparoscopy?
Operative laparoscopy is a procedure where an operation is performed with the help of laparoscope.

How will I feel following a laparoscopy?
Following any laparoscopic procedure, some discomfort is normal and to be expected. Patients commonly report pain in the shoulders, neck and abdomen. This may occur because gas used during the procedure to expand the abdomen cannot be fully removed. These symptoms usually resolve within 12-24 hours with bedrest. Nausea may occur and can be related to abdominal distention and/or manipulation of the bowel during the procedure. Some patients develop post-surgical nause from anesthesia. ...

What are the benefits of laparoscopy?
The recovery time in the immediate post operative period is quicker. Patients often go home after only 23 hours to recover in the comfort of their own home. The small incisions tend to be less painful and patients often need less postoperative pain medication as a result. Fewer wound infections occur. The cosmetic results are also appealing as the scar is limited to three or four skin incisions that are less then one half inch long.

What is diagnostic laparoscopy?
Diagnostic laparoscopy involves the insertion of a thin camera-tipped instrument called a laparoscope through a small incision to examine a patient’s abdomen or pelvis (including fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, small and large bowels, appendix, liver and gallbladder). This is typically done to confirm the presence or absence of a problem when noninvasive tests prove inconclusive, and helps the surgeon determine the proper course of treatment.

When is diagnostic laparoscopy necessary?
The procedure is often recommended when there is the suspected presence of endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, cancer, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) and appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy can detect a number of problems of the abdomen, including: Ovarian cysts Abnormal union of body surfaces Endometriosis Uterine fibroids Tumors Pelvic inflammatory disease Appendicitis Cholecystitis Metastatic cancer Signs of traum Back to Top

How is diagnostic laparoscopy performed?
The procedure may be done in a hospital or surgical center, with local or general anesthesia. First, carbon dioxide gas is injected through a needle to create a work space; next, a tube called a trocar is inserted, and finally the laparoscope is inserted. If the surgeon requires the use of additional surgical instruments, other small incisions may be made.

What procedures can be done by laparoscopy?
Almost all surgeries being done in open surgery are nowadays being performed. The most common however are cholecystectomy (removal of the gall bladder), appendicectomy (removal of the appendix), tubal ligation (sterilisation), diagnostic laparoscopy, hernia repair.

What are the contraindications of emergency laparoscopy?
Relative contraindications to emergency laparoscopy is: The general anaesthesia and the pneumoperitoneum required as part of the laparoscopic procedure may increase risk in certain patient groups. Most surgeons would not recommend emergency laparoscopy in: Patients with cardiac diseases and COPD are not good candidate for emergency laparoscopy. Patients who have had previous extensive abdominal surgery, emergency laparoscopy may be difficult. ...

What is emergency laparoscopy?
It is the laparoscopic operation which should be performed without any delay in life threatening situations. The gynaecologists were the first to start laparoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment, but since 1990s a lot of general surgeons have started to use this technique in the abdominal urgency, especially: abdominal trauma, acute cholecystitis, acute appendicitis, perforated peptic ulcer or intestinal obstruction. ...
Which operations of the kidney can be done by laparoscopy?
For MOST OF KIDNEY OPERATIONS , laparoscopy has already become the operation of choice. These are - - Removal of Non - Functioning kidney due to any cause. (NEPHRECTOMY) - Removal of kidney due to cancer - Removal of PART of kidney due to small cancer - Correction of obstruction leading to swelling of kidney - Pyeloplasty for UPJ obstruction. - Chyluria, - Large Cysts, - Special situations for stone like large ureteric stone. ...
Are there any risks, disadvantages or contraindications in laparoscopy?
As with any medical/ surgical intervention or procedure there could be some risk associated with it. These risks are similar to those encountered with conventional open surgery (bleeding, infection trauma to adjacent organs etc...) Extensive operative laparoscopic procedures are technically more demanding and require additional training and surgical skills from the surgeon. ...

How is microlaparoscopy different than laparoscopy?
Microlaparoscopy, or pinhole surgery, uses much smaller surgical instruments (about 1/10th of an inch in diameter) than are found with laparoscopic techniques (about 1/2 of an inch in diameter). The technology is very new in the United States, and it is currently used primarily for diagnostic procedures. While laparoscopy usually requires general anesthesia, microlaparoscopy may be able to be done with a local anesthetic and sedation. ...

What is a "second look" laparoscopy?
A group of experts in the field of endometriosis have suggested doing another laparoscopy at the end of the treatment period to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. Because this is the second laparoscopy, it is called a "second look" laparoscopy. In fact, this procedure is becoming much more popular today as compared to 10 or 15 years ago, even for patients who have had major surgery for infertility. ...
What is diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy?
We don’t take any patient without doing hysteroscopy, because by doing so we can easily find out some treatable causes of infertility and can see the endometrial status. In Diagsnostic hysteroscopy we check the cavity of uterus through hysteroscope to find out any abnormality. Asherman’s syndrome, fibroid, polyp and septum etc can be treated at the same time. In diagnostic laparoscopy we can check ovaries for cysts, dermoids, the fallopian tubes for patency, uterus for adhesions and submucous fibroids. ...